Psychology

For studies 3 & 4 described below, answer the following questions regarding inferential statistics.
In study 3 a behavioral psychologist conducts an experiment to determine whether operant conditioning techniques can be used to improve balance in people who consider themselves “clumsy.” She recruits 50 participants, each of whom responds yes to the question “Do you consider yourself clumsy?” on a pre-experimental questionnaire. Half of the participants are given 3 weeks of operant training during a balance exercise (stand on one foot with your arms in the air). In this operant training, each time participants can beat their previous balance time, they receive $10 reward. The other half of the participants are given the balance task with the time they can balance recorded, but received no operant training. After the 3-week period, all participants are asked to perform the balance task again. The members of the Training Group can balance for an average of 25 seconds. Members of the Control Group can balance for an average of 24.3 seconds. When the inferential statistical test is conducted on these data, p = .08. Alpha level is set at .05.

a. What is the IV for this study? What is the DV? (1 pt)
b. What is the scientific/alternative hypothesis? Is it one-tailed or two-tailed? (1 pt)
c. What is the null hypothesis? (0.5 pt)
d. Is the difference between the training group and the control group observed in the study statistically significant? Why or why not? (0.5 pt)
e. Based on your answer to (d) above, what decision should be made about the null hypothesis (reject or fail to reject)? (0.5 pt)

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Study 4: Some have claimed that children of divorced parents are not as well-adjusted as children of parents who are married. To test this idea, some researchers set up a study with two groups. One group consists of 100 children who have divorced parents. The other group consists of 100 children who have married parents. Each child in the study is asked to complete the Social Adjustment Scale for Children (SASC). Higher scores on the scale indicate better social adjustment. The results indicate a mean difference of 10 on the SASC scale between the two groups of children. When the inferential statistical test is conducted on the data, p = .02. Alpha level is set at .05.

a. What is the quasi-IV for this study? What is the DV? (1 pt)
b. What is the scientific/alternative hypothesis for this study? Is it one-tailed or two-tailed? (1 pt)
c. What is the null hypothesis? (0.5 pt)
d. Is the difference between the two groups in the study statistically significant? Why or why not? (0.5 pt)
e. Based on the results, what decision should be made with regard to the null hypothesis? (0.5 pt)

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