Padding may not always be appropriate. For example, one might wish to store the

encrypted data in the same memory buffer that originally contained the plaintext. In that

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case, the ciphertext must be the same length as the original plaintext. We saw the use

of ciphertext stealing in the case of XTS-AES to deal with partial blocks. Figure 7.18a

shows the use of ciphertext stealing to modify CBC mode, called CBC-CTS.

a. Explain how it works.

b. Describe how to decrypt Cn-1 and Cn.

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