The production of ATP by the mitochondria is really centred on activity taking place onthe folded inner membranes of this organelle – membranes called the cristae. There are a set of proton-pumping proteins embedded within the phospholipid bilayer of this membrane, and these proteins harvest the energy of excited electrons that they pass from one to another in order to do their proton pumping.

a)What is the significance of the fact that this inner membrane is folded?

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b)Where do the protons “pumped” by these protein channels come from?

c)Where do the protons end up after pumping?

d)Where do the electrons supplying energy to the proton pumps come from

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