1. UUsing “Levels of Evidence in Research,” identify two primary research articles ( must be within 7 years) that support the DPI Project (see below). Explain why these research articles are considered primary research articles with a high level of evidence and how they support your proposed intervention.
2. Compare practice-based evidence, research, and evidence-based practice and discuss how all three complement and support one another. Use examples and relevant literature to support your response. ( 250 words, minimum 3 references)
Levels of Evidence in Research
|Evidence Level||Types of Evidence||Primary Research||Secondary Research|
|LEVEL 1||Randomized-Controlled Trial: Subjects randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. Intervention group receives treatment/intervention. Comparison group receives no treatment/intervention. Clinician conducting study is unaware which group participants are assigned to which typically leads to unbiased results.||X|
|Systematic Review: Comprehensive review of existing literature which involves analyzing all articles related to the research question and summarizing findings. Researchers then make recommendations for clinical practice based on evidence from articles reviewed.||X|
|Meta-Analysis: Synthesis of findings from all single, independent studies to calculate an effect.||X|
|LEVEL 2||Cohort Studies: Studies observe large groups of people that record exposure to risk factors to find possible causes of disease. Studies gather data either moving forward (prospective) or review past data already recorded (retrospective).||X|
|LEVEL 3||Case Report Studies: Studies used to determine if there is an association between exposure and specific health outcome. Frequently used when studying rare health outcomes or diseases.||X|
|LEVEL 4||Case Report: Provides detailed report of diagnosis, treatment, response to treatment, and follow-up care of an individual patient.|
|Case Series: Group of case reports involving patients who were given the same treatment.|
|LEVEL 5||Animal or Laboratory Studies|
Primary Research: Involves active participation/observation by researchers themselves.
Secondary Research: Involves summary or synthesis of data/literature that has been organized by others.