Define and discuss the concept and process of gentrification

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The focus of this course is on how Toronto is presently (patterns) and how it came to be this way
(processes). Essentially, the course focusses on changes over time. This underlying theme will be
the subject of your individual essay and group work.
One of the most profound changes in many older neighbourhoods throughout Toronto is
“gentrification”. Various neighbourhoods are in different stages of this process.
Your essay will discuss the processes of gentrification in North American cities. Please answer
the following questions in your essay:
1) Define and discuss the concept and process of gentrification (its origin and meaning).
How does it relate to the ideas of “revitalization” and “urban renewal” (are they the same
2) Discuss what changes may occur in a neighbourhood as it gentrifies (what are the
processes?)? Provide examples of changes brought about by gentrification in at least
2 cities in North America, other than Toronto.
3) What are some of the positive and negative aspects of gentrification?
4) What can be done to minimize or eliminate the negative impacts of gentrification?
Please provide examples of mitigation efforts attempted in at least 2 cities in North
America, other than Toronto (they can be the same cities discussed in #2 above). To
what extent were they successful?
5) In your opinion, is gentrification a good thing or a bad thing? (Part of your conclusion –
Your opinion!)
Your essay is an INDIVIDUAL piece of work.
Your essay must be 1500 words in total, not including graphs, charts, tables, or your bibliography.
Please do not exceeded 1500 words.
Please use 12-pt font, Times New Roman, and make it double-spaced. Please upload your essay
in PDF format only.
You are required to use at least 5 peer-reviewed articles and/or books for your essay.
You may use some (or all) of the articles and/or books listed in your bibliography that you create
as a group in Group Assignment 1, and use for your presentation, or different ones. You must
refer directly to your articles in your paper, with proper in-text referencing – for example:
(Garrison 2000).
In addition to the 5 peer-reviewed articles and/or books, you can include information from
newspapers, government reports, government websites, Non-Governmental Organization
websites, photos, class lectures, etc. Make sure that every source is referenced in your
bibliography. Every figure, table, graph or photo must have a proper title above it, and a reference
below it.
You must have a title page which includes a descriptive title, your name, student number, course number (GEO 793),
section number (051), my name (Professor Raymond Garrison) and due date (Friday, November 08, 2019).
State what your essay is about, what your main argument will be, and how you will discuss it in your essay (i.e., list
the sub-sections here).
Please use sub-sections in your essay (and please list them in your introductory paragraph).
Include a conclusion, which is one or two paragraphs in length. The conclusion summarizes your main argument, and
states some future directions for investigations.
You may use any bibliographic style (e.g., APA Style), as long as you are consistent. Separate your bibliography
into 2 sections: peer-reviewed “Academic Literature”, and “Additional Sources”.
Spelling and grammar are important. Poor expression and grammar take away from the argument you are making

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